Acceleration Change in velocity per unit of time
Aerobic Exercise (Oxygen) Exercise for greater than 3 minutes
Aerobic Power The amount of work a person can perform, normally determined by the rate at which oxygen
is utilized during exercise
Agility The ability to change the direction of the body or body parts rapidly under control
Agonist The muscle most directly involved in brining about a movement
Anaerobic Exercise (ATP/CP) High intensity exercise for 1-30 seconds
Anaerobic Exercise (Lactic Acid) High intensity exercise for 30 seconds to 3 minutes
Anaerobic Power The amount of work performed using primarily anaerobic energy systems. Anaerobic power
is strongly related to explosive movements
Anatomy Encompasses the study of components that make up the musculoskeletal "machine"
Anorexia Nervosa Self-starvation
Antagonist A muscle that can slow down or stop movement
Anthropometry The measurement of the size (including height), weight, and proportions (including overall girth
and limb girths) of the human body
Ballistic Stretch Involves a bouncing movement in which the end position is not held
Biomechanics Focuses on the mechanisms through which the anatomy interacts to create movement
Body Composition The relative proportions by weight of body fat and lean mass
Borg Scale A numerical scale which is utilized for perceived exertion upon completion of an activity
Bulimia Nervosa An abnormal and constant craving for food
Cardiovascular Exercise which maintains ideal heart rate for a specified time
Co-contraction The ability to contract multiple muscle groups at the same time
Concentric Contraction The total tension developed in all muscle fibers is sufficient to overcome any resistance
to shortening. Example: upward phase of bicep curls
Contraction The tightening of a muscle while the joint is fixed or moving
Core Conditioning Exercising the midsection (front, back, side) with or without resistance for the extremities
Detraining A loss of training adaptations due to inactivity following exercise
Dynamic Flexibility The resistance of a joint during movement
Dynamic Resistance When the body or object provides resistance through a ROM. In training, we can use manual resistance, free-weight equipment, or resistance machines to provide dynamic resistance
Dynamic Stretch Involves flexibility during sport-specific movements. It is similar to Ballistic stretching in that it
utilizes movement, but dynamic stretching includes movements that may be specific to a sport
or movement pattern; in a sense dynamic stretching can be s
Eccentric Contraction The tension developed in the muscle fibers is less than the resistance, and the muscle lengthens despite contact between the myosin fibers heads. The actin filaments. Example: slow, controlled downward phase of the bicep curl
Ectomorphs Persons with slender, tall and more angular body types. Late maturers who keep growing for
a longer period of time and so become taller adults
Endomorphs Persons with rounder and more pear shaped body types
Ergogenic Substances Performance enhancing drugs and dietary supplements
Evaluation The process of analyzing test and measurement results for the purpose of making decisions
Fast-Twitch A fast-twitch motor unit develops force rapidly and has a short twitch time. Fast-twitch motor
units are characterized by fatigability, low aerobic power, rapid force development, and high
anaerobic power
Field Tests Tests that assess specific athletic talents in an applied setting
Flexibility The range of motion of a joint
Hypertrophy Enlargement of the muscle fibers
Intensity The amount of stress placed upon muscles, connective tissue, and joints
Interval Training A conditioning method that can enhance the body's ability to perform aerobic or endurance
activities as the aerobic system is also dramatically utilized and enhanced. Ex. Sprints
Isometric Contraction The tension in the muscle fibers equals the resistance to shortening and the muscle length
remains relatively constant
Kinesthetic Sense Conscious appreciation of the body in three-dimensional space
Local Muscular Endurance The ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a light
(sub maximal) load for an extended period of time
Macrocycle (Generally a year's training) is divided into two or more mesocycles that revolve around dates
of major competitions
Measurement The collection of data upon which a decision is based
Mental Imagery A cognitive psychological skill in which the athlete uses all the senses to create a mental
experience of an athletic performance
Mesocycles Part of a year's training
Mesomorphs Persons with muscular, broad shouldered, thick chested, and narrow wasted body types
Muscular Strength The force that a muscle or muscle group can exert against a resistance in one maximal effort
Needs Analysis When the professional analyzes the fitness needs of both the activity and the individual athlete
involved in the sport
Neutral Spine When the vertebrae is in a loose packed position in which the ligaments are not taught and
pressures in and around the joint structures are evenly distributed
Overload Principle Providing a greater stress or load on the body than it is normally accustomed to handling
Overtraining Excessive volume or intensity of training, or both, resulting in fatigue
Periodization The gradual cycling (allocation of a specific period of time, whether days, weeks, or months) of specificity, intensity, and volume of training to achieve peak levels of fitness for the most important competitions
Plyometrics Exercising that enables the muscle to reach maximum strength in as short a time as possible
Power The time rate of doing work. Power = Work/Time
Pre-stretching Purpose of prestretching is to enhance force production during the subsequent contraction
Proprioception To execute coordinated movement and muscle tone and body posture in space
Proprioceptors Specialized sensory receptors located inside muscles, joints, and tendons that monitor the length
and tension of the musculotendonous complex. In doing so, they proceed the central nervous
system with information concerning kinesthetic sense
Proteins Complex molecules that have enzymatic and structural functions and are important in a variety
of biosynthetic and bioenergetic reactions related to body growth, maintenance and repair, and
energy production
Range of Motion (ROM) The ability to go through the full range of possible movement about a joint
Repetition The frequency of work during a set
Resistive Training Conditioning activities that use an interplay of activity intervals and rest periods to develop the
body's energy systems for repeated and high-power output demands
SAID Principle (Specific adaptation to imposed demands) The type of demand placed on the body controls the
type of adaptation that will occur
Set One or more clusters of repetitions
Slow-Twitch A slow-twitch fibers develops force rather slowly and has a long twitch time. Slow-twitch motor
unit are fatigue-resistant and have a high aerobic capacity for energy supply, but they have limited potential for rapid force development and low anaerobic p
Specific Warm-Up Movements that is similar to the movements of the athlete's sport
Specificity Mechanical similarity between a training activity and a sport
Speed The rapidity of the movement
Sports Chord Rubber tubing used for resistive exercising
Sport-specificity Mechanical similarity between a training activity and sport
Sprain An injury to a ligament
Stabilization The ability to isometrically control the lumbo-pelvic region during static and active conditions
while the spine is in neutral
Strain An injury to a muscle
Strength The maximum force that a muscle or a group of muscles can generate at a specific speed
Stretching An exercise that elongates muscles and tendons
Stretch-shortening cycle The increase in force production also known as stretch-shortening potetiation. This is caused
by the combined effects of the use of elastic energy in the muscle and stretch-reflex potentiation
of the muscle
Synergist A muscle is called this when it assists indirectly in a movement
Training Frequency Refers to the number of training sessions completed in a given period of time
Work The product of force exerted on an object and the distance the object moves in the direction
in which the force is exerted. Work = Force

Resources: Physical Therapy and Athletic Performance text: Nova South Eastern University,
National Academy and Sports Medicine and National Strength and Conditioning Association

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